張競》軍備移轉再出口亦須獲得輸出許可

【愛傳媒張競評論】為何波羅的海國家向烏克蘭支援武器,還要回過頭來去獲得美國批准?

換句話說,就是要再獲得輸出許可,否則就無法採取實際行動提供烏克蘭美製武器。同時這其實也是為何德國不發輸出許可,愛沙尼亞也不能將其境內之前東德所遺留火砲移轉給烏克蘭原因所在。

 

國際軍備輸出管制其實是共通準則,但是最完備法規其實就是美國「國際軍備移轉條例」(ITAR: International Traffic in Arms Regulations)其規範國防品項defense articles、國防勞務defense services以及相關技術資料related technical data,自美國轉移至任何境外目的地或是交付至外籍人士之手,不論此等移轉過程是在美國境內抑或是境外,皆受其規範。

 

在境外移轉extra-territorial transfers軍備不論是再出口或是再移轉,其定義範圍包括

The re-export or re-transfer of defense articles from one foreign person to another, not previously authorized (i.e., transferring an article that has been exported to a foreign country from that country to a third country).

 

Transferring the registration, control, or ownership to a foreign person of any aircraft, vessel, or satellite covered by the USML, whether the transfer occurs in the United States or abroad.

 

The reexport/retransfer/transfer of non-US origin items that incorporate any US defense articles.

所以不論是實際交付抑或是登記產權移轉,都受到規範,同時亦要獲得原產製國准許獲得輸出許可。其實有時就在同個國家內,將軍用裝備轉為警用、民用、科技研究或是展示,甚至在原始軍備品項除役報廢拆解後,拿出其中關鍵組件,裝配在其他裝備系統上,都要申請輸出許可。所以只要不符合原先在輸入時所提「最終使用者承諾書」(EUU: End User Undertaking)所明列之對象、品項與數量,只要有所變化,都要依據規範申請輸出許可。

 

在國際社會能否規避軍備輸出管制規範,找到「非正式但是合法」之技術輸出管道,真是別作夢了!除非本身是個蠢蛋,否則是不會被詐騙集團所耍弄。那麼是否有可能在無法獲得軍備實體品項時,透過其他變通方式,找到高手在製造階段,不用獲得輸出許可,就來提供技術協助呢?除非是嗑藥,嗑到把腦子搞到昏了頭,否則怎麼會相信這種騙三歲小孩的屁話?讓我們看看下述美國軍備管制項目基本定義

The ITAR uses three different terms to designate export-controlled items – defense articles, technical data, and defense services. 

 

Defense Article means any item or technical data that is specifically designed, developed, configured, adapted, or modified for a military, missile, satellite, or other controlled use listed on the USML.  Defense articles also include things such as models, mock-ups, or other items, i.e. technical data related to items. Note that sometimes defense articles include items not listed on the USML.

 

Technical Data means any information for the design, development, assembly, production, operation, repair, testing, maintenance, or modification of a defense article. Technical data may include drawings or assembly instructions, operations and maintenance manuals, and email or telephone exchanges where such information is discussed. However, technical data does not include general scientific, mathematical, or engineering principles commonly taught in schools, information present in the public domain, general system descriptions, or basic marketing information on function or purpose.

 

Defense Service means providing assistance, including training, to a foreign person, whether in the United States or abroad in the design, manufacture, installation, repair, or operation of a defense article, as well as providing technical data. Defense services also include informal collaboration, conversations, or interchanges concerning technical data.

請睜開眼睛看看Defense Service基本定義,那兒有個斬釘截鐵manufacture字樣,要是說設計階段獲得技術協助此等國防勞務項目要輸出許可,而製造階段不需要,誰說這種違反基本常識的笑話,就拿出個法條來讓大家開開眼界吧!

 

國際軍備輸出實質內容雖然涉及機密,但過程必然是公開透明,沒有暗盤作業與交易。國際軍備輸出管制在國際權力舞臺是個恐怖平衡之政治遊戲,有一方不按規則辦事,暗中武裝敵對勢力,絕對會被還以顏色。同時來路不明之技術文件、數據參數與演算程式都有可能隱含風險,收受贓物按圖施工,害死人也無法償命,更會鬧出國際醜聞。

 

記住!醜聞資料是無法核定機密等級,不過要是教授升等論文,那就是另當別論⋯⋯但若是從他國非法移轉之軍備實體品項或是技術圖書,胡亂列入機密核定其等級,政府官署就會變成收贓共犯,會被別人告到太平洋去啊!

 

烏克蘭情勢如此嚴峻形勢下,美國與德國都要依據國際軍備輸出管制辦事,就是證明軍備輸出移轉沒有便宜行事空間,這個就是個無法規避,違規就要付出殘酷代價之政治現實。

 

作者為英國博士、中華戰略學會研究員,曾任國軍艦長

 

●評論文章,不代表i-Media 愛傳媒立場